观点 | Web 3.0将为元宇宙的发展提供底层基础
作者：德鼎创新基金合伙人 王岳华， Richard Wang, General Partner of DraperDragon Fund
在NUCB Business school 的发言，11/18
It's my pleasure to present here and to share my thinking and some ideas about the digital ID. First of all, I would like to introduce myself, my name is Richard Wang, and I was also an entrepreneur back to almost 10 years ago. In 2011, I started to work for Draper Dragon, which is a typical and traditional venture capital firm with the headquarter in Silicon Valley, Bay Area. Since then, I have spent my last 11 years into the venture capital business. We are a typical USD fund, and we also have offices in China, and we have our RMB fund as well.
We actually focus on three different areas, which are TMT, healthcare since 2006, and blockchain since 2014, respectively. Our footprint is quite broad, as for the TMT field, we have invested in quit a lot biotech companies, semiconductor companies and technology companies. In the healthcare field, we do have a lot of medical devices companies as well as some companies specialized in developing therapy methods for some specific diseases. It has been 7 years since we’ve invested in the blockchain area, including the crypto and digital assets. Talking more about the blockchain, we own over 60 portfolios today, including Coinbase, which is the largest regulated exchange in the world. And also, Ledger, which is the number one cold wallet company worldwide. We also invested in Telegram in 2018 before, I believe some of you may know about Telegram, which was a very popular decentralized and encrypted messenger platform. But unfortunately, because of some regulations of the US SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission), the investors of Telegram were forced to exit. Anyhow, we do have a lot of experience in the blockchain area.
Today, we are still interested in Layer 1 and Layer 2. While on top of that, there is something called Layer 0, it is all about protocol-related projects, which serve as the infrastructure for the blockchain. Currently, we are also interested in NFT, DeFi, GamFi, Metaverse concept projects, to name a few. Speak of NFT, we have approximately 8 portfolios so far, including some very good Marketplace companies in the USA. In brief, all those companies and their products are supposed to be supported by Web 3.0.
目前，我们仍然对Layer 1 和 Layer 2的项目很感兴趣，除此之外，还有包括了协议相关项目的Layer 0，它为区块链起到了基础架构的作用，我们持续关注包括NFT、 DeFi、GamFi和元宇宙等领域在内的项目，我们目前大约有8个NFT的投资组合，其中包括了一些非常优秀的美国NFT Marketplace交易平台。而所有这些公司及其产品都是以Web 3.0为基础的。
People talk a lot about the metaverse as well as Web 3.0. I would say that the metaverse is quite likely to be a new and innovative lifestyle for human beings in the near future. For example, in 3 to 5 years you are supposed to see numerous metaverse concept projects, then in 1 to 2 decades, these metaverse concept projects are expected to be more mature and much better. Overall, all those things need to be built based on the infrastructure of Web 3.0.
如今元宇宙和Web 3.0已经成为了炙手可热的话题，我认为在不远的将来元宇宙有可能为人类带来一种全新的、富有创意的生活方式。例如，在3、5年内大家很有可能看到一系列元宇宙概念的项目诞生，再经过一二十年，这些项目将变得更加成熟和完善，这些改变无疑同样是在Web 3.0提供的底层基础之上进行建设。
There are three key factors throughout Web 3.0. The first one is Artificial Intelligence, which we have already witnessed in our daily life through all kinds of applications embedded machines and chips, you may get a glimpse of the beauty of the AI Algorithm. In the future, the tiny algorithm needs to be embedded into the protocol. For example, in blockchain, we talk about smart-contract which is ‘smart’ and is even expected to be more intelligent later on. Therefore, Artificial Intelligence will be one of the very key factors for Web 3.0.
Web 3.0有三个关键因素。第一个是人工智能（AI），我们在生活中已经可以透过一些机器或是芯片的应用对AI包括智能算法的精妙有所感受，在未来，这些细小的算法需要被嵌入和内化到协议中。例如，在区块链中我们时常提到的智能合约，在未来它不仅仅是“智能”的，也会变得更加“智慧”。因此，AI是Web 3.0的核心要素之一。
The second factor is edge computing. Nowadays, a lot of information has been stored in the cloud, which represents social and mobile, and is a critical part for Web 2.0. While in web 3.0 we have edge computing instead of the clouding in Web 2.0. So why the edge computing is going to be more and more important? Because in the future, everything is at the edge side, at the terminal side, at the personal side, even at each single device side is going to related with the digital ID, and is going to be more and more important. Therefore, you will require more and more computing and distributed storage as well. Clearly, the edge computing is becoming more and more crucial, and that would be a very basic feature and factor for Web 3.0 too.
第二个核心要素是边缘计算。现在许多信息被上传存储在云上，云服务结合社交化和可移动化，是Web 2.0的关键要素。Web 3.0中与其对应的边缘计算越来越体现出其重要性，其原因在于，在不久的未来，边缘端、终端或是说个人端甚至每个设备上的各种信息将与数字身份息息相关，因而对计算和分布式存储的需求也愈发显著。边缘计算重要性日渐凸显，毫无疑问的，它也是Web 3.0的基础要素之一。
The third one, I would say it might be the most important one, the so-called distributed data network. Why distributed data network? In web 3.0, every single data either generated or created by different notes, objects, people or different entities come from distributed network. That's the fundamental elements of Web 3.0.- AI, the edge computing and distributed data on the network.
第三个也是我认为最重要的要素是分布式数据网络。为什么呢？每个在不同设备中包含的，或是由人、物所创造的数据都来源于分布式网络，这是构成Web 3.0的基础。由此，AI、边缘计算和网络上的分布式数据是Web 3.0的三个关键因素。
Then people think about what is the other fundamental factor in Web 3.0 that serve as infrastructure. That is digital ID. When a person was born, he got a name, or saying, ID, even if it’s a very stupid name. ID is very basic in the digital world, all it is about is one thing which we call as ‘certificate’. This certification is bound with something such as data or a human being. Digital ID is certificate, but actually it's not just ID itself, it is data certificate in web 3.0. If you think about people's ID, the ID means somebody, but in digital world, the ID means data certificate. This data is going to show who you are, where you are from, and also where you're going to.
除此之外，人们还会思考其他构成Web 3.0的基础要素，即数字身份（数字ID）。人们出生的时候拥有的名字就是一个ID，即使滑稽的名字也不影响它作为ID的功能。同样的，ID在数字世界、在Web 3.0也发挥着最基础的功能，而这里说的ID实际上指“数字凭证”，它与人或者数据绑定,这些数据能够进一步展现你是谁、你从哪来、你要到哪去。
The data is so important, those data generated or created from you is the interaction between you and other people so as well other things. Those data which is going to prove who you are is all about you. So, what is the ID? Again, it is the certificate which presents a best way to prove ‘who you are’ for the reason that it is unique, specific, validated and valuable. The data comes from you without anybody else knows could be nothing but something valuable. But we need to select what kind of data we are going to contribute, keep and merge. Those data, again, is not only part of you, but the basic and fundamental things for the digital ID.
You may hear about people talking about the so-called metadata, which is every single data originally create or generate from you through the interactions with other things and other people. It is quite important because the metadata is about you, to be more specific, your ID. Think about it, nowadays, it is the police who proves who you are. But in the future world, in Web 3.0, in the metaverse world, it should not be the police to prove who you are but the metadata authorized by all the different distributed entities, by all different people and different organizations. A single data may only prove part of who you are. However, if you merge them, they can prove 99% of you, and that is enough.
Then what is the data we're talking about? Again, it refers to the distributed data from all the interactions between you and other people as well as other things (or nodes). Actually, it is not only in the case that human’s interactions with people and things can generate data. Taking a wide imagination, not just a human beings got IDs but also an object (or machine) is supposed to own an ID. Take the self-driving car as an example. The self-driving car as a machine can also have ID because each car is different. There would be no human being as so-called owners for self-driving cars in the future, however, the car can be his own individual entity. Suppose a car is going to be produced by a car factory with a commitment to repay the loan which provides the capital for the production in 3 years. After the production was completes, the self-driving car is going to easily make its own living by picking up whatever the passenger it wants. Then, the car got the money, the crypto, the token or some kind of digital assets, therefore it can go to the charge station for power. In this way the car is supposed to get some return and pay back the loan to the car factory. That's exactly how a self-driving car exists without a human being as an owner. Each car is different with each other, such as they are able to travel in different ways with different passengers. So each car is unique thus it needs its own ID, in the way of the digital ID (again, it is all about data). Therefore, digital ID is available for both human and machines in the metaverse world base on web3.0 in the future.
Let's go back to the data generated or created by people, in the future digital economic system, these data can be merged and used either in a synthesized way, or be separated and just partially used to fulfill some specific tasks. In that case, you might be able to create not only some new business models, but also new business paradigms, because not every task is going to ask for all your information. Therefore, the ID carried certain assets and value, which includes not only money that in financial way but also data itself, which is the real infrastructure.
Again, think of the self-driving cars, it can contribute a lot of valuable data about the traffic, even just patrol when driving by itself without any passengers. This self-driving car owns digital ID and it carries assets. Please take this as an example and try to open your mind, you're going to think about a lot more interesting ideas to hook up with the digital ID things. Anyway, ID is so basic, fundamental and critical, numerous different business paradigms can be created through merging or separating the ID data.
In the case of a metaverse scenario, the importance of the digital ID can be imagined according to what I have just mentioned above. Taking the human being as another example. I'm currently 50 years old, I can create an artificially virtual Richard, or saying, a virtually digital ID, based on all the data collected over my past 50 years, which simulates 99.9% similarity of the real physical Richard. This virtual avatar can work 24/7 or he can work with me in parallel in different scenarios (or different digital world). But think about one more thing, one year later, this virtual ID has a lot more interactions with other things and therefore create large amount of data, however, the interactions did not actually happen to the physically real Richard. Therefore, those metadata created or generated by the avatar is going to affect the real physical Richard. In this case, then the 51-year-old Richard would be represented by the data merged from both the physically real Richard and the virtual Richard..
正如我刚刚提到的那样，数字ID的重要性不言而喻。再举个关于人的例子，比如说收集我过去50年人生中的所有数据来制造一个人造的虚拟的我，毫无疑问，投过适当的AI算法其相似度可以高达99.9%，这个虚拟的替身同样拥有他自己的数字ID，他可以24小时7天的同时和我在不同的场景中工作 （甚至同时在几个元宇宙场景， 平行的元宇宙）。进一步思考，一年后，当这个虚拟ID与更多的事物进行了交互，而实际上的本我并没有与相应的事物发生交互时，由数字虚拟身份产生或收集的元数据就会对本我产生影响。这情况下，51岁的我就是由虚拟身份和实际上的本我产生的两方面数据所组成的。
When referring to the digital data, we can think about many different ideas, which can create a lot of different business paradigms. Just as the example I have mentioned that I can use all the data to simulate 99% of the real Richard. While if you only use 1% of the data, you can create a partial you, that you could name as ‘second life’. Is it alright for ‘the second life’ to ask for a digital ID as well? Of course! Although this digital ID is not going to be 100% the same as the original ID, it doesn't matter, because the digital ID is not the only thing that stands for all. You can have sub accounts under a digital ID, through which you got partial IDs which represent part of the whole ID. Overall, it is the data that actually matters. From this perspective, you can create a lot more interesting things.
You may think the things I'm talking about are still quite far away, they might be something unachievable because of current regulations or conservative business models. However, things change quickly, and you need to believe people’s capability how to be innovation and creation. I believe you're going to see the things I'm talking about very soon, saying, in 5 to 10 years. Nowadays, there are already a lot of protocols to address the digital ID issue, all the way from crypto wallet to SocialFi, GameFi applications as well as metaverse concept applications, for example you may found an ID in a gaming project. However, the idea is still not powerful, not diversified, and not versatile yet. Nevertheless, using the concept of digital ID you can create a lot more different business models.
Today, there have been a lot of crypto wallets using the digital ID, maybe you’ve heard about the public chains like Algorand, Solana and Dfinity, which all have some sort of digital IDs to carry the assets on the chains. Even Microsoft has the ID protocols to support applications. Also some US companies have defined digital ID protocols to help them manage their subsidiaries and reach those people who are unbanked or not even get a real ID, in case of being in some very poor countries. So the digital ID things have actually been used in some cases nowadays, at the meantime, using metadata to create or issue digital ID together with different business model is becoming more and more practical and crucial. Hopefully in the next 3 to 5 years you are going to see some more applications in this way.
如今许多加密钱包已经运用了虚拟ID，例如公链Algorand、 Solana 、Dfinity都运用到数字ID在链上承载资产，甚至微软也有自己的ID协议来支持一些应用，一些美国公司也使用数字ID协议来帮助他们管理子公司和覆盖来自贫穷国家的没有银行账户甚至没有个人ID的用户。因此可以看到数字ID已经在今天的生活中有了运用，根据元数据来创造数字ID和新的商业模型指日可待，在未来3到5年我们将看到更多这样的运用。
To summarize, digital ID is the infrastructure for all applications. It's a big topic, and there are a lot more that can be evolution. Please think about it and try to explore more, think about the data itself in the digital world, it would be very fascinating.