观点 | Web 3.0将为元宇宙的发展提供底层基础

原标题:《探秘数字身份》

作者:德鼎创新基金合伙人 王岳华, Richard Wang, General Partner of DraperDragon Fund

在NUCB Business school 的发言,11/18

It's my pleasure to present here and to share my thinking and some ideas about the digital ID. First of all, I would like to introduce myself, my name is Richard Wang, and I was also an entrepreneur back to almost 10 years ago. In 2011, I started to work for Draper Dragon, which is a typical and traditional venture capital firm with the headquarter in Silicon Valley, Bay Area. Since then, I have spent my last 11 years into the venture capital business. We are a typical USD fund, and we also have offices in China, and we have our RMB fund as well.

很荣幸在区块链起源研讨会上进行本次讲演,与大家分享我对数字身份的一些观点。首先和大家简单介绍一下我自己,我叫Richard,大约十年前我作为企业家出身,并在2011年加入了德鼎创新基金,它是一家总部位于硅谷的传统的风险投资基金,从那时起,我开始了投身近12年的风投事业。德鼎创新基金是一家典型的美元基金,在中国也设有办事处以及人民币基金。

We actually focus on three different areas, which are TMT, healthcare since 2006, and blockchain since 2014, respectively. Our footprint is quite broad, as for the TMT field, we have invested in quit a lot biotech companies, semiconductor companies and technology companies. In the healthcare field, we do have a lot of medical devices companies as well as some companies specialized in developing therapy methods for some specific diseases. It has been 7 years since we’ve invested in the blockchain area, including the crypto and digital assets. Talking more about the blockchain, we own over 60 portfolios today, including Coinbase, which is the largest regulated exchange in the world. And also, Ledger, which is the number one cold wallet company worldwide. We also invested in Telegram in 2018 before, I believe some of you may know about Telegram, which was a very popular decentralized and encrypted messenger platform. But unfortunately, because of some regulations of the US SEC (Securities and Exchange Commission), the investors of Telegram were forced to exit. Anyhow, we do have a lot of experience in the blockchain area.

德鼎创新基金是TMT、医疗保健和区块链领域的活跃投资者。我们从2014年开始进行区块链领域的投资,在至今的7年中涵盖了加密和数字资产的公司,我们在区块链领域拥有超过60家被投项目,包括最大的持牌加密货币交易平台Coinbase、世界第一的冷钱包Ledger。我们在2018年的时候还投了大受欢迎的去中心化、功能齐全的跨平台即时通讯软件Telegram,我相信你们可能对它有所耳闻,但由于美国证券交易委员会的规定,所有投资者不得不退出投资。总而言之,我们在区块链投资领域有着丰富的经验。

Today, we are still interested in Layer 1 and Layer 2. While on top of that, there is something called Layer 0, it is all about protocol-related projects, which serve as the infrastructure for the blockchain. Currently, we are also interested in NFT, DeFi, GamFi, Metaverse concept projects, to name a few. Speak of NFT, we have approximately 8 portfolios so far, including some very good Marketplace companies in the USA. In brief, all those companies and their products are supposed to be supported by Web 3.0.

目前,我们仍然对Layer 1 和 Layer 2的项目很感兴趣,除此之外,还有包括了协议相关项目的Layer 0,它为区块链起到了基础架构的作用,我们持续关注包括NFT、 DeFi、GamFi和元宇宙等领域在内的项目,我们目前大约有8个NFT的投资组合,其中包括了一些非常优秀的美国NFT Marketplace交易平台。而所有这些公司及其产品都是以Web 3.0为基础的。

People talk a lot about the metaverse as well as Web 3.0. I would say that the metaverse is quite likely to be a new and innovative lifestyle for human beings in the near future. For example, in 3 to 5 years you are supposed to see numerous metaverse concept projects, then in 1 to 2 decades, these metaverse concept projects are expected to be more mature and much better. Overall, all those things need to be built based on the infrastructure of Web 3.0.

如今元宇宙和Web 3.0已经成为了炙手可热的话题,我认为在不远的将来元宇宙有可能为人类带来一种全新的、富有创意的生活方式。例如,在3、5年内大家很有可能看到一系列元宇宙概念的项目诞生,再经过一二十年,这些项目将变得更加成熟和完善,这些改变无疑同样是在Web 3.0提供的底层基础之上进行建设。

There are three key factors throughout Web 3.0. The first one is Artificial Intelligence, which we have already witnessed in our daily life through all kinds of applications embedded machines and chips, you may get a glimpse of the beauty of the AI Algorithm. In the future, the tiny algorithm needs to be embedded into the protocol. For example, in blockchain, we talk about smart-contract which is ‘smart’ and is even expected to be more intelligent later on. Therefore, Artificial Intelligence will be one of the very key factors for Web 3.0.

Web 3.0有三个关键因素。第一个是人工智能(AI),我们在生活中已经可以透过一些机器或是芯片的应用对AI包括智能算法的精妙有所感受,在未来,这些细小的算法需要被嵌入和内化到协议中。例如,在区块链中我们时常提到的智能合约,在未来它不仅仅是“智能”的,也会变得更加“智慧”。因此,AI是Web 3.0的核心要素之一。

The second factor is edge computing. Nowadays, a lot of information has been stored in the cloud, which represents social and mobile, and is a critical part for Web 2.0. While in web 3.0 we have edge computing instead of the clouding in Web 2.0. So why the edge computing is going to be more and more important? Because in the future, everything is at the edge side, at the terminal side, at the personal side, even at each single device side is going to related with the digital ID, and is going to be more and more important. Therefore, you will require more and more computing and distributed storage as well. Clearly, the edge computing is becoming more and more crucial, and that would be a very basic feature and factor for Web 3.0 too.

第二个核心要素是边缘计算。现在许多信息被上传存储在云上,云服务结合社交化和可移动化,是Web 2.0的关键要素。Web 3.0中与其对应的边缘计算越来越体现出其重要性,其原因在于,在不久的未来,边缘端、终端或是说个人端甚至每个设备上的各种信息将与数字身份息息相关,因而对计算和分布式存储的需求也愈发显著。边缘计算重要性日渐凸显,毫无疑问的,它也是Web 3.0的基础要素之一。

The third one, I would say it might be the most important one, the so-called distributed data network. Why distributed data network? In web 3.0, every single data either generated or created by different notes, objects, people or different entities come from distributed network. That's the fundamental elements of Web 3.0.- AI, the edge computing and distributed data on the network.

第三个也是我认为最重要的要素是分布式数据网络。为什么呢?每个在不同设备中包含的,或是由人、物所创造的数据都来源于分布式网络,这是构成Web 3.0的基础。由此,AI、边缘计算和网络上的分布式数据是Web 3.0的三个关键因素。

Then people think about what is the other fundamental factor in Web 3.0 that serve as infrastructure. That is digital ID. When a person was born, he got a name, or saying, ID, even if it’s a very stupid name. ID is very basic in the digital world, all it is about is one thing which we call as ‘certificate’. This certification is bound with something such as data or a human being. Digital ID is certificate, but actually it's not just ID itself, it is data certificate in web 3.0. If you think about people's ID, the ID means somebody, but in digital world, the ID means data certificate. This data is going to show who you are, where you are from, and also where you're going to.

除此之外,人们还会思考其他构成Web 3.0的基础要素,即数字身份(数字ID)。人们出生的时候拥有的名字就是一个ID,即使滑稽的名字也不影响它作为ID的功能。同样的,ID在数字世界、在Web 3.0也发挥着最基础的功能,而这里说的ID实际上指“数字凭证”,它与人或者数据绑定,这些数据能够进一步展现你是谁、你从哪来、你要到哪去。

The data is so important, those data generated or created from you is the interaction between you and other people so as well other things. Those data which is going to prove who you are is all about you. So, what is the ID? Again, it is the certificate which presents a best way to prove ‘who you are’ for the reason that it is unique, specific, validated and valuable. The data comes from you without anybody else knows could be nothing but something valuable. But we need to select what kind of data we are going to contribute, keep and merge. Those data, again, is not only part of you, but the basic and fundamental things for the digital ID.

数据是非常重要的,无论是从你本身产生的还是由你创造的,它代表着你与不同的人、物之间的交流互动。这些由你而来、与你相关同时仅你知道的数据能够证明“你是谁”,基于它的价值以及独特性、唯一性、可验证性和多变性,这种ID,即 “凭证”,是能够证明“你是谁”,或者你想怎么呈现“你是谁”的最好的方法。为了达到这样的效果,我们需要先筛选要提供、保存、融合的数据,这些数据是构成数字ID最根本、最基础的部分。

You may hear about people talking about the so-called metadata, which is every single data originally create or generate from you through the interactions with other things and other people. It is quite important because the metadata is about you, to be more specific, your ID. Think about it, nowadays, it is the police who proves who you are. But in the future world, in Web 3.0, in the metaverse world, it should not be the police to prove who you are but the metadata authorized by all the different distributed entities, by all different people and different organizations. A single data may only prove part of who you are. However, if you merge them, they can prove 99% of you, and that is enough.

你也许听说过所谓的“元数据”,它在你与不同的人和物的交互中产生。元数据是非常重要的,因为它代表了对你,即你的ID的描述。想一想,如今警察可以证明你的身份,但在未来,在Web 3.0,在元宇宙,证明你身份的不再是警察而是被不同分布式的个体认证的元数据。这些单独的数据也许只能部分证明你的身份,但将它们融合起来之后可以证明99%的身份,这就足够了。

Then what is the data we're talking about? Again, it refers to the distributed data from all the interactions between you and other people as well as other things (or nodes). Actually, it is not only in the case that human’s interactions with people and things can generate data. Taking a wide imagination, not just a human beings got IDs but also an object (or machine) is supposed to own an ID. Take the self-driving car as an example. The self-driving car as a machine can also have ID because each car is different. There would be no human being as so-called owners for self-driving cars in the future, however, the car can be his own individual entity. Suppose a car is going to be produced by a car factory with a commitment to repay the loan which provides the capital for the production in 3 years. After the production was completes, the self-driving car is going to easily make its own living by picking up whatever the passenger it wants. Then, the car got the money, the crypto, the token or some kind of digital assets, therefore it can go to the charge station for power. In this way the car is supposed to get some return and pay back the loan to the car factory. That's exactly how a self-driving car exists without a human being as an owner. Each car is different with each other, such as they are able to travel in different ways with different passengers. So each car is unique thus it needs its own ID, in the way of the digital ID (again, it is all about data). Therefore, digital ID is available for both human and machines in the metaverse world base on web3.0 in the future.

我们这里所谈到的数据指的是由你和其他人或物交流互动得到的分布式数据,但实际上这些数据不止可以来源于人与外界的互动,也可以来源于物。请展开畅想,不止是人可以有ID,物同样可以拥有ID。例如,在未来自动驾驶汽车没有传统意义上的所有者,它可以独立存在。当一辆自动驾驶汽车承诺将在3年内偿还工厂生产汽车的债务,在完成生产后,汽车可以自主决定搭载哪些乘客,在获得收入,即加密货币或代币或某种数字资产后,去加“油”站购买能源,由此往复,汽车就能获得利润并向工厂偿还债务。每辆自动驾驶汽车都是不同的,它们以不同的路线行驶、搭载不同的乘客,因此每辆独一无二的车也需要以数字ID的形式拥有自己的身份。由此看来,基于web3.0的数字ID在未来的元宇宙中对于人和物都适用。

Let's go back to the data generated or created by people, in the future digital economic system, these data can be merged and used either in a synthesized way, or be separated and just partially used to fulfill some specific tasks. In that case, you might be able to create not only some new business models, but also new business paradigms, because not every task is going to ask for all your information. Therefore, the ID carried certain assets and value, which includes not only money that in financial way but also data itself, which is the real infrastructure.

再次说到由人产生或者创造出的数据,这些数据可以被当作一个综合的整体进行运用,也可以针对某些特定项目的诉求取其中的一部分来使用。由此,在未来的虚拟经济架构中,数据可以根据需要达成的不同目的被分割或是融合,这种情况下,我们期待不止将会浮现一些新的商业模型,更有新的商业范式出现,因为一个项目并不会使用到你的全部信息。因此,承载某种资产的ID起到了基础架构的作用,这里的资产不仅仅指金融方面的货币,数据本身也是一种资产。

Again, think of the self-driving cars, it can contribute a lot of valuable data about the traffic, even just patrol when driving by itself without any passengers. This self-driving car owns digital ID and it carries assets. Please take this as an example and try to open your mind, you're going to think about a lot more interesting ideas to hook up with the digital ID things. Anyway, ID is so basic, fundamental and critical, numerous different business paradigms can be created through merging or separating the ID data.

在刚刚的自动驾驶汽车的例子中,无论汽车是否搭载了乘客,它都可以为交通情况,甚至油价等其他方面贡献大量有价值的数据,而这样一种拥有独立数字ID的自动驾驶汽车就承载一些资产。通过这些例子,也许你能够打开思维,将更多有趣的想法与数字ID联系在一起。简而言之,ID作为至关重要的根本,新的商业范式将融合或分割ID数据中诞生。

In the case of a metaverse scenario, the importance of the digital ID can be imagined according to what I have just mentioned above. Taking the human being as another example. I'm currently 50 years old, I can create an artificially virtual Richard, or saying, a virtually digital ID, based on all the data collected over my past 50 years, which simulates 99.9% similarity of the real physical Richard. This virtual avatar can work 24/7 or he can work with me in parallel in different scenarios (or different digital world). But think about one more thing, one year later, this virtual ID has a lot more interactions with other things and therefore create large amount of data, however, the interactions did not actually happen to the physically real Richard. Therefore, those metadata created or generated by the avatar is going to affect the real physical Richard. In this case, then the 51-year-old Richard would be represented by the data merged from both the physically real Richard and the virtual Richard..

正如我刚刚提到的那样,数字ID的重要性不言而喻。再举个关于人的例子,比如说收集我过去50年人生中的所有数据来制造一个人造的虚拟的我,毫无疑问,投过适当的AI算法其相似度可以高达99.9%,这个虚拟的替身同样拥有他自己的数字ID,他可以24小时7天的同时和我在不同的场景中工作 (甚至同时在几个元宇宙场景, 平行的元宇宙)。进一步思考,一年后,当这个虚拟ID与更多的事物进行了交互,而实际上的本我并没有与相应的事物发生交互时,由数字虚拟身份产生或收集的元数据就会对本我产生影响。这情况下,51岁的我就是由虚拟身份和实际上的本我产生的两方面数据所组成的。

When referring to the digital data, we can think about many different ideas, which can create a lot of different business paradigms. Just as the example I have mentioned that I can use all the data to simulate 99% of the real Richard. While if you only use 1% of the data, you can create a partial you, that you could name as ‘second life’. Is it alright for ‘the second life’ to ask for a digital ID as well? Of course! Although this digital ID is not going to be 100% the same as the original ID, it doesn't matter, because the digital ID is not the only thing that stands for all. You can have sub accounts under a digital ID, through which you got partial IDs which represent part of the whole ID. Overall, it is the data that actually matters. From this perspective, you can create a lot more interesting things.

由虚拟数据可以延伸出许多创意,并由此创造出更多的商业范式。正如我刚刚提到的根据过去所有的数据可以虚拟出一个相似度99%的Richard,仅使用1%的数据也可以部分创造一个你,可以是某种第二人生。那么这个第二人生是否需要数字ID呢?当然!尽管它与原始ID的相似度无法达到100%也没关系,因为数字ID并不是获知一切信息的唯一途径,在一个数字ID下可以有子账户,这个子账户代表完整ID的一部分,实际上真正关键的是背后的数据。因而,ID在这个话题下也可以创造出更多有趣的东西。

You may think the things I'm talking about are still quite far away, they might be something unachievable because of current regulations or conservative business models. However, things change quickly, and you need to believe  people’s capability how to be innovation and creation. I believe you're going to see the things I'm talking about very soon, saying, in 5 to 10 years. Nowadays, there are already a lot of protocols to address the digital ID issue, all the way from crypto wallet to SocialFi, GameFi applications as well as metaverse concept applications, for example you may found an ID in a gaming project. However, the idea is still not powerful, not diversified, and not versatile yet. Nevertheless, using the concept of digital ID you can create a lot more different business models.

你也许会认为我在这里谈到的话题离现实都还很遥远,受制于各种监管或者商业模型,它们似乎无法实现。但是,变化在日新月异的发生着,我们相信人们的创造力和各种奇思妙想,我相信这些变化在未来的5到10年就会发生。如今已经可以看到许多针对数字ID拟定的协议,同样,从加密钱包到各种SocialFi、GameFi、元宇宙概念的运用中都可以看到数字ID的身影。例如你可以在一个游戏性的项目中创建一个数字ID,但目前它还在不够强大、不够多元化和兼容性不足的阶段,我们期待更多有趣的融合ID理念的商业模式。

Today, there have been a lot of crypto wallets using the digital ID, maybe you’ve heard about the public chains like Algorand, Solana and Dfinity, which all have some sort of digital IDs to carry the assets on the chains. Even Microsoft has the ID protocols to support applications. Also some US companies have defined digital ID protocols to help them manage their subsidiaries and reach those people who are unbanked or not even get a real ID, in case of being in some very poor countries. So the digital ID things have actually been used in some cases nowadays, at the meantime, using metadata to create or issue digital ID together with different business model is becoming more and more practical and crucial. Hopefully in the next 3 to 5 years you are going to see some more applications in this way.

如今许多加密钱包已经运用了虚拟ID,例如公链Algorand、 Solana 、Dfinity都运用到数字ID在链上承载资产,甚至微软也有自己的ID协议来支持一些应用,一些美国公司也使用数字ID协议来帮助他们管理子公司和覆盖来自贫穷国家的没有银行账户甚至没有个人ID的用户。因此可以看到数字ID已经在今天的生活中有了运用,根据元数据来创造数字ID和新的商业模型指日可待,在未来3到5年我们将看到更多这样的运用。

To summarize, digital ID is the infrastructure for all applications. It's a big topic, and there are a lot more that can be evolution. Please think about it and try to explore more, think about the data itself in the digital world, it would be very fascinating.

简而言之,数字身份是各种应用的基础架构,它是一个很大的概念,其中包括了其他各种内容。请大家尽情思考和探索这个话题,想一想在数字世界中数据本身的意义,这会是一个非常迷人的命题。